Study Shows How the Intestine Replaces and Repairs Itself

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Rockefeller scientists discovered that lymphatic capillaries—fantastic vessels that transport immune cells and drain fluids from tissues—characterize a signaling hub that communicates with stem cells to manage their exercise. With molecular steering from the lymphatics, the stem cells produce daughter cells to repopulate the intestinal lining or self-renew to restock the stem cell reserve.

“The key to treating these diseases will be to figure out who talks to whom in this ecosystem and how we can reset the communication networks,” says Rachel Niec, a medical scholar within the laboratory of Elaine Fuchs.

Communications within the Intestine

The intestinal stem cells reside in so-called crypts, discovered on the base of densely packed indentations within the intestinal lining. The stem cells might renew and keep within the crypt, or differentiate into specialised cells, which then migrate out of the crypt to replenish the intestine lining. “To understand how stem cells balance self-renewal with differentiation, we needed a more complete picture of crypt niches,” says Marina Schernthanner, a graduate pupil within the Fuchs lab.

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To zoom in on the crypt, the staff used a collection of strategies, together with single-cell and spatial transcriptomics, which allowed them to determine cell sorts at particular areas and examine their signaling molecules. The outcomes confirmed that lymphatic capillaries, which kind an intimate reference to the stem cells within the crypt, produce quite a lot of proteins recognized to be necessary for stem cell functioning.

One beforehand underappreciated protein, REELIN, emerged as a high candidate for mediating communications between lymphatics and stem cells. By manipulating the quantity of REELIN in lab-grown intestinal organoid cultures in some experiments and genetically suppressing it in mice in others, the researchers discovered that REELIN straight governs the regenerative conduct of intestinal stem cells.

The involvement of the lymphatic system in stem cell functioning is a comparatively new idea. A earlier examine by the Fuchs staff revealed that lymphatics are additionally carefully concerned with stem cells of the pores and skin and play a key function in hair regeneration. There, nevertheless, it’s the hair follicle stem cells that sign to lymphatic capillaries. By controlling their interactions with lymphatics, the stem cells synchronize hair regeneration throughout the tissue. “This suggests that lymphatics may be a conserved feature of stem cell niches, but their relationship to stem cells are likely tailored around the needs of each tissue,” Niec says.

Supply: Eurekalert

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